After the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca in 1774, it was clear that the Ottoman Empire had to make drastic changes to fend off encroachment by European powers. What initially took the form of military improvement and minor institutional modernizations transformed into a new set of ideologies based on identification with the Empire (Ottomanism) and with Islam (Pan-Islam). While both ideologies had their supporters and were integrated into government policy during their respective periods, neither succeeded in forming a strong enough identity among the Empire’s peoples.
"The Development of Turkish Identity in the Late Ottoman Empire (1904-1917),"
The Histories: Vol. 1
, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.lasalle.edu/the_histories/vol1/iss1/4