Date of Award

Spring 2017

Degree Type

Honors Project



First Advisor

Dr. Zeb Kramer

Second Advisor

Dr. Vincent Kling


Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analyses were performed on AgCl-PX3 complexes, where X = H, F. The analyses indicate the presence of a 3- center- 4- electron (3c4e) hyperbond between the Cl, Ag, and P atoms, formed by a charge transfer from the occupied p orbital of the phosphorus and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), (nominally a σ*.). Delocalization of the complexes’ electrons results from these interactions. Furthermore, the complexes were bound predominately by electrostatic interactions (approximately 80%), as opposed to covalent bonds. The structures are resonance stabilized with the Cl-Ag and Ag-P bonds having natural bond orders of ~0.5.