This paper explores the relationships between nonverbal immediacy, biological sex, job satisfaction, credibility and liking. An online survey was used to answer the following questions:
RQ1: Do subordinates recognize a significant distinction between male and female supervisors’ use of nonverbal immediacy?
H1: Supervisors who display nonverbal immediacy will be perceived as more competent communicators by their subordinates.
RQ2: Is there a relationship between the subordinate’s perception of his or her supervisor’s credibility and the subordinate’s reported job satisfaction?
RQ3: Is there a relationship between the subordinate’s perception of his or her supervisor’s liking and the subordinate’s reported job satisfaction?
RQ4: Is there a significant difference in a subordinate’s reciprocation of nonverbal immediacy based on the biological sexes of the superior-subordinate relationship?
RQ5: Is there a relationship between subordinates’ reciprocation of nonverbal immediacy and subordinates’ reported job satisfaction?
Participants included 154 working adults, 46 male and 108 female, ranging in age from 21 to 76. Respondents were asked to complete a 143-item online survey between May 9, 2014 and July 1, 2014 that used the following scales: Nonverbal Immediacy Scale-Observer Report, Job Satisfaction Survey, Communication Competence Scale, Rubin’s Liking Scale and McCroskey’s Measurement of Ethos.
T-tests showed that there was no significant difference in the perceptions of nonverbal immediacy among members of different biological sexes. Results also showed that immediacy and communication competence had a significant positive correlation, an inverse relationship was found between supervisor’s credibility and subordinate’s job satisfaction and a positive correlation was found between supervisor’s liking and subordinate’s job satisfaction. The scale used to test reciprocation was not reliable, and therefore could not be tested.
"The Effect of Nonverbal Immediacy and Biological Sex on Subordinate Job Satisfaction and Supervisor Credibility and Liking,"
Graduate Annual: Vol. 3
, Article 13.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.lasalle.edu/graduateannual/vol3/iss1/13