An optimization model for traceable closed-loop supply chain networks

Document Type


Publication Date





In this paper, a new non-linear mixed-integer mathematical programming problem is proposed to model a stochastic multi-product closed-loop supply chain (CLSC). The radio frequency identification (RFID) system is implemented in the supply chain to decrease product losses and the overall lead time of transportation while computing the profit derived from internet and conventional sales. The resulting traceable CLSC improves upon the existing literature by allowing us to: (1) boost the incorporation of traceability assumptions in mathematical programming problems so as to enhance the efficiency and visibility of a supply chain, (2) analyze the strategic effects that different internet sale formats have on customers’ evaluations and acquisition choices, and (3) account for the environmental and socio-economical dimension by explicitly formalizing employment-based incomes as part of the profit function. Two meta-heuristic algorithms are introduced to solve the proposed optimization problem, namely, the greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Twelve test problems of different sizes are generated and solved using these algorithms. The computational results show that GRASP outperforms PSO in terms of both profit and CPU time values. Finally, a case study in the network marketing industry is presented and managerial implications outlined to show the validity of the proposed model and shed more light on its practical implications.




Hajipour, V., Tavana, M., Di Caprio, D., Akhgar, M. and Jabbari, Y. (2019) ‘An Optimization Model for Traceable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Networks,’ Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 71, pp. 673-699.